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English Grammar – Present Perfect Simple

Form of Present Perfect Simple

  • P: He has spoken.
  • N: He has not spoken.
  • Q: Has he spoken?

Use of Present Perfect Simple

Present Perfect Simple is used for actions that started in the past and stopped recently or are still going on. The focus is on the result.

  • Action that is still going on

    Situation that is still the same as it was in the past. We want to emphasise that the situation has not changed.


    Your advice has always been extremely helpful.
    We have not yet received a remittance for the goods supplied to you.

  • Action that stopped recently

    Action that has just been completed. We want to emphasise the result.


    I have typed five letters.
    I have just received your mail.

  • Action in the past that has an influence on the present

    Action that was completed in the past, but has an influence on a present situation. Note that you must not give a certain time for the action in the past (if you want to use a time expression, you must use Simple Past).


    I have lost Misses Wildes phone number.
    We have agreed on the following points:

  • Action that so far has taken place never, once or several times

    Action that happened / did not happen in the past. We want to emphasise how often the action has taken place so far.


    I have never been to our New York subsidiary.
    Misses Newton has already phoned three times to inquire about the delivery of her goods.

Signal Words of Present Perfect Simple

already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

Detailed Explanation and Exercises on Present Perfect Simple

Exercise on Present Perfect Simple

Complete the sentences in Present Perfect Simple.

  1. We are happy to inform you that we (establish) a new branch in Australia.
  2. Bob Westley (sign / already) the contract.
  3. We (acquire) a new customer.
  4. Alice Wilson (agree) to organise the teams.
  5. I (print out / just) the letter.
  6. Our customers (be / always) satisfied with our services.
  7. Unfortunately, you (react / not) to our reminder notice.
  8. Hannah (send / not) out the quotation yet.
  9. (receive / you) our order?
  10. Which company (submit) the most favourable offer?