Nouns - Articles, Plural and Possessive Case

Important things to keep in mind when using nouns are which article to use and how to form the plural and how to form the possessive case.

Article

Direct article - the

example: the house

Indirect article a / an

a - if the first letter of the following word is pronounced like a consonant

example: a car, a university

an - if the first letter of the following word is pronounced like a vowel

example: an apple, an hour

Plural

general rule: singular form + s

example: a car - two cars

after s, ch, x, z the plural is formed by adding es

example: a box - two boxes

y after a consonant is changed to ie before the plural s

example: a city - two cities

But: y after a vowel is not changed

example: a boy - two boys

After o the plural is usually formed by adding es (this is not the case, however, with words used for electric gadgets and music: radio, video, disco)

example: a tomato - two tomatoes

Possessive Case of Nouns

adding 's of phrase
usually used for people usually used for things
Ronny's brother the name of the school

If there is a relation to people when using the possessive case with unanimated things, often the s is added instead of using an of phrase.

example: Germany's economy or the ecomony of Germany

When using the possessive case with a time, s is added.

example: a three weeks' holiday