Present Perfect Continuous
The present perfect progressive expresses an action that recently stopped or is still going on. It puts emphasis on the duration or course of the action.
Form of Present Perfect Progressive
|I / you / we / they||I have been speaking.||I have not been speaking.||Have I been speaking?|
|he / she / it||He has been speaking.||He has not been speaking.||Has he been speaking?|
Exceptions in Spelling
|Exceptions in spelling when adding ing||Example|
|final e is dropped
(but: ee is not changed)
|come – coming
(but: agree – agreeing)
|after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled||sit – sitting|
|l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English)||travel – travelling|
|final ie becomes y||lie – lying|
Use of Present Perfect Progressive
- puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result)
Example: She has been writing for two hours.
- action that recently stopped or is still going on
Example: I have been living here since 2001.
- finished action that influenced the present
Example: I have been working all afternoon.
Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive
- all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week