Present Perfect Simple

The present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It puts emphasis on the result.

Form of Present Perfect

I / you / we / they I have spoken. I have not spoken. Have I spoken?
he / she / it He has spoken. He has not spoken. Has he spoken?

For irregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed

Exceptions in spelling when adding edExample
after a final e only add d love – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
admit – admitted
travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried

Use of Present Perfect

  • puts emphasis on the result

    Example: She has written five letters.

  • action that is still going on

    Example: School has not started yet.

  • action that stopped recently

    Example: She has cooked dinner.

  • finished action that has an influence on the present

    Example: I have lost my key.

  • action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking

    Example: I have never been to Australia.

Signal Words of Present Perfect

  • already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

Exercises on Present Perfect

Tests on Present Perfect

Grammar in Texts

Comparison with other Tenses