A brief History of Ireland

3000BC The Megalithic tombs are constructed (Newgrange).
700BCThe Celts arrive from parts of Gaul and Britain.
350ADChristianity reaches Ireland.
432St. Patrick arrives in Ireland and confronts King Laoghaire who allows him to spread the word of Christianity in Ireland.
700-800Monastic culture is at its height.
795Invasion by the Vikings.
1014Brian Boru defeats the Vikings at Clontarf.
1169Dermot MacMurrough, the exiled king of Leinster, seeks help from Strongbow.
1172King Henry II of England is declared Feudal Lord of Ireland by the Pope.
1366Statues of Kilkenny belatedly forbid intermarriage of English and Irish. Gaelic culture unsuccessfully suppressed.
1534-40Insurrection by Lord Offaly fails.
1541Henry VIII proclaimed King of Ireland.
1558-03Plantation of Ireland commences under the reign of Elizabeth I.
1595-03Failed uprising of Hugh ONeil.
1607Flight of the Earls, leading Ulster families go into exile.
1641King Charles Is policies cause insurrection in Ulster and Civil War in England.
1649Cromwell invades Ireland.
1653Cromwells opponents stripped of land under the Act of Settlement.
1689-90Deposed James II flees to Ireland and is defeated at the Battle of the Boyne.
1704The Penal Laws enacted: Catholics are barred from voting, education and the military.
1775American War of Independence instigates Irish unrest.
1782Grattans Parliament persuades English to declare Irish independence, but in name only.
1795The Organge Order is founded.
1798Uprising by Wolfe Tone and the United Irishmen is crushed.
1801Ireland becomes part of Britain under the Act of Union.
1829Catholic Emancipation Act passed after Daniel OConnell elected as MP.
1845-49The Great Famine claims over 1 million lives through starvation and disease. Emigration over the next 10 years results in departure of a further 1 million people.
1879-82The Land War is instigated by Parnell who encourages the boycott of repressive landlords. The 3 Fs are gained for the peasantry: Fixity of Tenure, Fair Rent, Freedom to sell their holding.
1914The Implementation of Home Rule is postponed because of the outbreak of World War I.
1916The Easter Rising is led by Pearse, Connolly and others. The 7 leaders are executed which shifts public opinion in favour of the rebels.
1920-21Michael Collins masterminds the War of Independence between Britain and Ireland. The Irish Free State is created (excluding the 6 Northern Counties).
1922-23Civil war breaks out between the Free State Army and the Irregulars (the IRA).
1926Fianna Fail party formed and led by de Velera.
1932De Valera elected Taoiseach of Ireland.
1939-45Ireland remains neutral during WW2 despite the offer of a United Ireland having been made to de Velera if Ireland enters the war on behalf of the Allies.
1948Ireland declared a Republic by Costello. Northern Ireland is declared a separate entity.
1969Rioting between Catholics and Protestants. Civil Rights marches. British troops called in to keep order.
1971Provisional IRA begins campaign to oust British troops from Ireland.
1972Republic of Ireland joins the European Community.
1985Anglo-Irish Agreement signed.
1994Peace Declaration and IRA ceasefire.
1998Good Friday agreement reached promising the creation of a Northern Assembly.

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