Form of Present Perfect Simple
- P: He has spoken.
- N: He has not spoken.
- Q: Has he spoken?
Use of Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Simple is used for actions that started in the past and stopped recently or are still going on. The focus is on the result.
- Action that is still going on
Situation that is still the same as it was in the past. We want to emphasise that the situation has not changed.Examples:
Your advice has always been extremely helpful.
We have not yet received a remittance for the goods supplied to you.
- Action that stopped recently
Action that has just been completed. We want to emphasise the result.Examples:
I have typed five letters.
I have just received your mail.
- Action in the past that has an influence on the present
Action that was completed in the past, but has an influence on a present situation. Note that you must not give a certain time for the action in the past (if you want to use a time expression, you must use Simple Past).Examples:
I have lost Misses Wilde’s phone number.
We have agreed on the following points:
- Action that so far has taken place never, once or several times
Action that happened / did not happen in the past. We want to emphasise how often the action has taken place so far.Examples:
I have never been to our New York subsidiary.
Misses Newton has already phoned three times to inquire about the delivery of her goods.
Signal Words of Present Perfect Simple
already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now